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JOURNAL «SRP». Requirements for abstracts

An article should be accompanied by an abstract in Russian, not more than 150–250 words long, reflecting the main contents of the article, followed by the authors’ names and key words (4-10). The key words should be separated by a semicolon because this facilitates classification of the study by computer search engines. An abstract is the main source of information in national and foreign information systems and databases indexing scientific journals. One should keep in mind that in order to be placed into an international database an article should be intelligible and interesting for the foreign medical community and should help them get a sufficiently full idea about subject matters explored in Russian scientific publications as well as their professional level without knowing the Russian language and without accessing the full text. Therefore an abstract should be informative (should not contain vague words and expressions), meaningful (reflect the main contents of the article), well-structured (provide a logical description of the study results).

 

One of the variants of an abstract that has proven useful is a brief reproduction of the article’s structure that includes an introduction, aims and objectives, methods, results, and a conclusion. The scope of research, subject and aim of the study are stated if they are not made clear in the title of the article. The methods and methodology should be described in an abstract only if they are innovative or are of interest for this particular study. The results of the study are presented in a precise and informative way. An abstract should mention the main theoretical and empirical results, actual data, revealed correlations and trends. Preference should be given to new results, data with lasting significance, important findings and conclusions that contest existing theories as well as data that have real practical value from the author’s point of view. Conclusions can be accompanied by recommendations, estimations, proposals, hypotheses described in the article.

 

The information contained in the name of the article should not be repeated in the abstract. One should avoid redundant introductory phrases (such as, «the author of the article investigates…», «it is widely known…»). An abstract should neither include historical background (unless it makes up the main contents of the article), nor describe earlier publications, nor cite generally accepted facts.

 

Syntactic patterns used in an abstract should be appropriate for scientific and technical types of texts, e.g. one should avoid complex grammatical structures (which are not used in the English scientific functional style). When writing an abstract one may refer to GOST 7.9-95 «Informative abstract and indicative abstract. General requirements».

 

The English version of an abstract accompanying a Russian article may be longer than the Russian version because it is not followed by the full text in the same language. The English translation of an abstract and key words should not have any transliterations from Russian, except for untranslatable proper names, names of equipment and other objects that possess proper names; nor should it include untranslatable professional slang that is used by Russian specialists only. An abstract should be written using specialist English terms. One should avoid using terms that are loan translations of Russian terms. The uniformity of terms should be achieved all through the abstract. The text should be made cohesive by using such words as «consequently», «moreover», «for example», «the benefits of this study», «as a result», etc., or else individual facts should be logically deducted from one another. The active voice should be used in preference to the passive voice, i.e. «The study tested» instead of «It was tested in this study» (a frequent mistake in Russian abstracts).

 

Examples of improper abstracts in English are given at the site of the British publishing house Emerald
(http://www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/authors/guides/write/abstracts.htm?part=4).

 

The site of the publishing house also provides examples of appropriate abstracts for various types of articles
(reviews, research papers, conceptual papers, case studies
http://www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/authors/guides/write/abstracts.htm?part=3).

 

 




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